Days and Lives :: Arrest

Prisoner: Nina Pavlovna Aminova

Aminova was arrested at work. “On March 18,1953 a man in boots and a light coat came to the laboratory. He informed Olga Preobrazhenskaia and me that we were being summoned… I thought, where could I possibly be summoned. Then I remembered that the day before there was a meeting on the occasion of Stalin’s death and thought, maybe they want me to give a speech at another meeting… We got to the entrance… The man sent Olya and me in opposite directions. I entered the room… They told me, ‘You’re under arrest.’ I asked, ‘Why?’ They didn’t reply… They took me to the next room and searched me; put me in a car and took me to the dormitory to get my things… [They] took my only watch and a gilded powder case… It was springtime… They took me to the ‘Grey House’ [The Secret Police Headquarters] in Yaroslavl and put me in a cell meant for two prisoners.”

Introduction

Soviet citizens during Stalin's reign lived in constant fear of arrest, interrogation, and imprisonment. Once arrested, the accused had no rights to protest their incarceration and no access to a fair trial. Prisoners were either sentenced to death or to years of hard labor in the Gulag.

Listen to the sound or read transcript below.

Movie Transcription

When citizens of Stalin’s Soviet Union climbed into bed at night, an uninterrupted sleep was never a guarantee. The secret police’s sharp 2 a.m. knock often launched an odyssey into the hellish depths of the Gulag. Many would never return alive.

When that 2 a.m. knock came, only one set of lights burned in an entire apartment building—that of the arrested man or woman. In cramped communal apartments, nothing remained secret, and neighbors would peek furtively out their door trying not to be noticed, trying not to be next. Frightened family members would watch as the secret police searched for potentially incriminating materials—anything that might indicate independent thought. Most new prisoners believed their arrest to be a mistake.

The Soviet police operated unpredictably, arresting people not only in the dark of night but also in the light of day. No matter when or where arrest occurred, special trucks outfitted with tiny prison cells hauled the new prisoners to their tormentors in an interrogation prison. The crushing loneliness of solitary confinement awaited some. Crowded cells smelling of sweat, urine, and feces greeted others. Prisoners only escaped their cell for marathon interrogations, enforced sleeplessness, and other forms of torture designed to elicit their “confessions” to often invented crimes. Interrogations concluded with a farcical trial that lasted perhaps several minutes before pronouncement of a predetermined verdict. For many, this was the end—a death sentence carried out almost immediately. The “lucky” found themselves boarding a stinking, crowded cattle car with just a hole in the floor for a toilet. Days or weeks later, they arrived to begin their sentence in a Gulag labor camp, usually with a weakened body and confused mind.