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Black and white photograph of group physical training with male and female guards standing in line watching a fellow guard walking on a balance beam.


Prisoner Andrei Vingorsky's painting of a Smolensk female guard in uniform holding a gun across her lap with a view of a city behind her. Prisoner artists often painted camp employees in exchange for extra food rations, better jobs, or other commodities in the Gulag camp "economy."

Photograph of female prisoners shoveling dirt into railroad flatcars taken at BAMlag, the Gulag site engaged in construction of the Baikal-Amur railway.

Photograph of female prisoners working with shovels and wheelbarrows on an excavation site at the construction works at Belomorkanal.

Male and female prisoners using treadle sewing machines in the sewing workshop at Belmorkanal Camp.

Color sketch from Evfrosiniia Kernovskaia's self-illustrated memoir of a lone figure in the forest sawing logs. In the accompanying text, Kersnovskaia describes the difficulty of the work.

Alla Vasileva's sketch of fellow prisoner Anna Skitmazur reading a book.

Sketch of a female prisoner sewing while sitting in a chair.